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Table 5 Differences in total costs and QALYs and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for lifestyle and metformin vs placebo over 10 years

From: The cost-effectiveness of diabetes prevention: results from the Diabetes Prevention Program and the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study

Differences in costs (∆ cost ) Lifestyle vs placebo Metformin vs placebo DPP group lifestyle vs placeboa
Health system perspectiveb    
 Undiscounted 1,656 −251 $81
 Discountedb 1,748 −205 $201
Societal perspectived    
 Undiscounted 2,572 −3,644 $996
 Discountedb 2,688 −3,021 $1,141
Differences in QALYs (∆ QALY)    
 Undiscounted 0.15 0.01 0.15
 Discountedc 0.14 0.01 0.14
Health system perspectiveb    
 Undiscounted 10,759 Cost-saving $528
 Discountedc 12,878 Cost-saving $1,478
Societal perspectived    
 Undiscounted 16,699 Cost-saving $6,468
 Discounted 19,812 Cost-saving $8,412
  1. aSensitivity analysis. Assumes that the core curriculum and follow-up visits were conducted as group session with ten participants during the 3 years of DPP
  2. bIncludes total direct medical costs
  3. cBoth costs and QALYs discounted at 3 %
  4. dIncludes direct medical costs, direct nonmedical costs including participant time, and indirect costs