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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of patients treated with lispro, aspart and glulisine

From: Clinical effects, cardiovascular and renal outcomes associated with rapid-acting insulin analogs among individuals with type 2 diabetes: a nation-wide observational cohort study

  Lispro
(n = 1986)
Aspart
(n = 14,501)
Glulisine (n = 1133)
Age, years (SD) 60.8 (12.9) 60.9 (12.4) 63.2 (10.8)
Age 65 years or older, n (%) 1861 (43.4%) 6082 (41.9%) 558 (49.2%)
Female, n (%) 796 (40.1) 5460 (37.7) 445 (39.3)
Diabetes duration, years (SD) 10.8 (8.2) 9.9 (8.1) 11.7 (7.6)
Total cholesterol, mmol/L (SD) 4.7 (1.1) 4.7 (1.1) 4.6 (1.1)
Triglycerides, mmol/L (SD) 2.2 (1.5) 2.2 (1.5) 2.2 (1.7)
HDL, mmol/L (SD) 1.2 (0.4) 1.2 (0.4) 1.2 (0.4)
HbA1c, mmol/mol (SD) 70.9 (17.0) 69.6 (16.6) 70.4 (16.6)
BMI, kg/m2 (SD) 30.5 (4.9) 30.5 (4.9) 30.6 (5.1)
Systolic BP, mmHg (SD) 134.6 (15.7) 136.0 (16.7) 135.8 (15.7)
Diastolic BP, mmHg (SD) 76.7 (9.7) 76.9 (9.8) 76.1 (9.9)
Serum creatinine, x (SD) 82.7 (33.8) 84.6 (38.4) 83.9 (32.7)
eGFR, mL/min/1.73m2 (SD) 83.5 (36.2) 82.3 (29.1) 81.5 (27.7)
Renal impairment, n (%) 911 (45.9%) 5924 (40.9%) 612 (54.0%)
Smokers, n (%) 164 (14.1%) 1176 (15.5%) 101 (12.8%)
Higher education, n (%) 405 (20.7%) 2531 (17.7%) 206 (18.5%)
Physical inactivity, n (%) 307 (30.8%) 2052 (31.7%) 196 (28.7%)
Oral hypoglycemic agent, n (%)
 Metformin 1433 (72.2%) 9805 (67.6%) 865 (76.3%)
 Sulphonylurea/meglitinide 672 (33.8%) 5316 (36.7%) 514 (45.4))
 Thiazolidindione 97 (4.9%) 822 (5.7%) 87 (7.7%)
 DPP-4 inhibitor 149 (7.5%) 656 (4.5%) 102 (9.0%)
 Acarbose 27 (1.4%) 201 (1.4%) 22 (1.9%)
GLP-1 receptor agonist 104 (5.2%) 324 (2.2%) 63 (5.6%)
Insulin pump (CSII), n (%) 5 (0.6%) 6 (0.1%) 1 (0.2%)
Other insulin, n (%) 1865 (93.9%) 13,780 (95.0%) 1090 (96.2%)
Lipid-lowering agent, n (%) 1282 (64.6%) 9149 (63.1%) 841 (74,2%)
History of …, n (%)
 Ischemic heart disease 204 (12.1%) 1561 (10.8%) 123 (10.9%)
 Atrial fibrillation 167 (8.4%) 1306 (9.0%) 82 (7.2%)
 Myocardial infarction 182 (9.2%) 1344 (9.3%) 108 (9.5%)
 Unstable angina 298 (15.0%) 2032 (14.0%) 163 (14.4%)
 PCI 176 (8.9%) 1145 (7.9%) 83 (7.3%)
 CABG 95 (4.8%) 750 (5.2%) 52 (4.6%)
 Peripheral vascular disease 41 (2.1%) 469 (3.2%) 27 (2.4%)
 Stroke 106 (5.3%) 693 (4.8%) 44 (3.9%)
 Congestive heart failure 158 (8.0%) 1187 (8.2%) 71 (6.3%)
 Hypoglycaemia 39 (2.0%) 306 (2.1%) 24 (2.1%)
 Hyperglycaemia 64 (3.2%) 516 (3.6%) 30 (2.6%)
  1. Means, standard deviations (SD), proportions; BP, blood pressure