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Table 1 Characteristics of study participants according to the latent classes of physical activities

From: Patterns of physical activity in sedentary older individuals with type 2 diabetes

Characteristics of participants
(N = 115)
Mean ± SD or total N (%) Participant Groups by latent classes of physical activitya P-values
Class 1
N = 68
Class 2
N = 21
Class 3
N = 18
Age, years 70.6 ± 7.1 70.5 ± 7.8 70.1 ± 5.8 71.6 ± 6.7 0.80
Female 66 (60.0%) 50 (73.5%) 10 (47.6%) 5 (27.8%) < 0.001α
White 84 (77.1%) 50 (62%) 17 (81.0%) 15 (83.3%) 0.68
African-American 25 (22.9%) 18 26.5%) 4 (19.1%) 3 (16.7%)
Some college or more 90 (84.1%) 56 (82.4%) 19 (90%) 15 (83%) 0.74
Married 53 (49.5%) 30 (44.1%) 13 (61.9%) 10 (55.6%) 0.32
BMI (kg/m2) 32.7 ± 5.9 33.2 ± 6.5 30.8 ± 4.0 33.9 ± 6.0 0.20
SF-12: Health faire/poor 13 (12.2%) 8 (11.8%) 2 (9.5%) 3 (16.7%) 0.83
Health good/excellent 94 (87.9%) 60 (88.2%) 19 (90.5%) 15 (83.3%)
Hypertension 94 (83.2%) 58 (85.3%) 15 (71.4%) 16 (88.9%) 0.27
Coronary Artery Disease 14 (12.4%) 7 (10.3%) 3 (14.3%) 3 (16.7%) 0.63
Arthritis 41 (36.3%) 25 (36.8%) 8 (38.1%) 6 (33.3%) 1.00
Lung disease 15 (13.3%) 10 (14.7%) 1 (4.76%) 4 (22.2%) 0.31
Depression (CES-D) 5.84 ± 3.73 5.97 ± 3.72 5.35 ± 3.42 5.89 ± 4.23 0.81
Hemoglobin A1c, % 6.95 ± 1.3 7.03 ± 1.28 6.71 ± 1.08 6.58 ± 0.73 0.28
Using insulin 26 (23.0%) 15 (22.1%) 3 (14.3%) 5 (27.8%) 0.59
Six minute walk (feet) 1313.5 ± 251.9 1311.4 ± 251.8 1345.4 ± 254.5 1334.0 ± 271.1 0.85
Comfortable gait speed (meter/s) 0.95 ± 0.2 0.95 ± 0.2 0.95 ± 0.2 0.95 ± 0.1 0.99
Timed Up and Go test (seconds) 8.70 ± 2.02 9.00 ± 2.11 7.65 ± 1.28 8.74 ± 2.28 0.03β
Peak VO2 (ml/kg/min) 16.72 ± 4.92 16.59 ± 5.00 17.27 ± 4.64 17.53 ± 5.67 0.73
CHAMPSTOTAL
(Kcal/wk)
2482.0 ± 2086.3 1645.1 ± 1505.9 3380.3 ± 1841.7 4363.0 ± 2427.6 <.0001α
Frequency per week in any physical activities, times 4.40 ± 2.43 3.15 ± 1.41 6.29 ± 2.03 6.94 ± 2.60 <.0001α
CHAMPSMOD_EXERCISE
(Kcal/wk)
1250.4 ± 1497.2 593.6 ±
859.1
1989.6 ± 1349.2 2568.5 ± 1759.0 <.0001α
Frequency per week of moderate-vigorous physical activities, times 1.72 ± 1.61 0.90 ± 0.95 2.81 ± 1.36 3.61 ± 1.54 <.0001α
  1. aThe 3 latent classes included 107 participants (93% of the total number of participants). Comparison of the 3 latent classes used ANOVA for continuous variables and Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables. Percentages represent column percent. P-values represent comparison of the 3 latent classes
  2. αβ Post-hoc comparison of each latent class used Tukey-Kramer pairwise comparisons (for continuous variables) and proportion test (for categorical variables): α = Both class 1 vs. 2 and class 1 vs. 3 are significantly different (each p < 0.05); β = Only class 1 vs. class 2 is significant (p < 0.05)
  3. SD Standard deviation, BMI Body Mass Index, CES-D Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale questionnaire, SF-12 12-Item Short Form Health Survey, CHAMPS Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors