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Fig. 4 | Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology

Fig. 4

From: The challenges of diagnosing osteoporosis and the limitations of currently available tools

Fig. 4

Areal BMD as determined by DXA declines with aging for different reasons. With aging, women with smaller femoral necks tend to increase bone area through an increase in cortical thickness by an increase in periosteal and endosteal bone formation. Since BMD may only decrease slightly but bone area increases more, the result is lower areal BMD as measured by DXA despite likely having little change in bone strength. In the case of women with larger femoral necks, the endosteal cortex undergoes excessive resorption without periosteal expansion resulting in a thinner cortex. The result is a lower BMC without significant change in bone area. The DXA areal BMD decreases and may result in a bone with less strength. Adapted from Jepsen, et al. JBMR 2017 [32]

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