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Fig. 5 | Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology

Fig. 5

From: The challenges of diagnosing osteoporosis and the limitations of currently available tools

Fig. 5

Structural changes in bone with osteoporosis medications. The anti-resorptive medications (bisphosphonates and denosumab) and anabolic medications (teriparatide and likely abaloparatide) produce very different structural changes in bone. Although both classes increase trabecular bone, their effects on cortical bone are different. Bisphosphonates and denosumab do not expand periosteal bone but do decrease the endosteal diameter by an increase in endosteal bone volume. Anti-resorptives also reduce cortical porosity. Anabolic agents lead to an increase in periosteal bone with a simultaneous increase in endosteal bone resorption resulting in a bone without a large change in cortical thickness. At the same time, anabolic agents increase cortical porosity. Despite the increase in cortical porosity, the larger bone has increased strength. NC = no change

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