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Table 4 Effects of neighborhood variables and correlates on self-reported use of acute or emergency health care services, n = 424

From: How is neighborhood social disorganization associated with diabetes outcomes? A multilevel investigation of glycemic control and self-reported use of acute or emergency health care services

Variablea Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
Regression Coefficient p-value Regression Coefficient p-value Regression Coefficient p-value Regression Coefficient p-value
B (95% CI) B (95% CI) B (95% CI) B (95% CI)
Intercept −0.31 (− 0.53, − 0.10) 0.003 − 0.34 (− 0.53, − 0.14) 0.001 −0.33 (− 0.53, − 0.14) 0.001 −0.34 (− 0.54, − 0.14) 0.001
Sex
 Female REF   REF   REF   REF  
 Male −0.07 (−0.15, 0.15) 0.52 0.12 (−0.11, 0.35) 0.30 0.12 (−0.11, 0.35) 0.32 0.12 (−0.11, 0.35) 0.32
Age −0.03*** (− 0.02, − 0.02) < 0.001 −0.04*** (− 0.05, − 0.02) < 0.001 −0.03*** (− 0.05, − 0.02) < 0.001 −0.04*** (− 0.05, − 0.02) < 0.001
Race
 White REF   REF   REF   REF  
 Black 0.01 (−0.27, 0.26) 0.91 0.1 (−0.16, 0.37) 0.45 0.05 (−0.22, 0.32) 0.71 0.1 (−0.17, 0.36) 0.48
 Other −0.21 (− 0.31, 0.44) 0.52 − 0.26 (− 0.94, 0.41) 0.44 −0.31 (− 1.00, 0.37) 0.37 −0.27 (− 0.95, 0.4) 0.43
Educational level
 Some HS 0.03 (−0.41, 0.53) 0.91 −0.13 (− 0.65, 0.39) 0.63 − 0.19 (− 0.71, 0.33) 0.47 −0.13 (− 0.65, 0.39) 0.63
 HS grad 0.33* (− 0.27, 0.59) 0.02 0.16 (−0.12, 0.44) 0.27 0.13 (−0.16, 0.41) 0.38 0.16 (−0.12, 0.44) 0.27
 Some college REF   REF   REF   REF  
 College grad −0.20 (−0.13, 0.12) 0.22 −0.24 (− 0.58, 0.09) 0.16 − 0.25 (− 0.59, 0.08) 0.14 −0.24 (− 0.58, 0.1) 0.16
 Grad −0.04 (− 0.34, 0.34) 0.84 −0.15 (− 0.53, 0.23) 0.43 −0.12 (− 0.50, 0.26) 0.52 −0.15 (− 0.53, 0.23) 0.43
Years with diabetes 0.00 (− 0.02, 0.02) 0.91 0.00 (− 0.02, 0.02) 0.92 0.00 (− 0.02, 0.02) 0.91
Diabetes distress 0.00 (− 0.01, 0.01) 0.33 0.01 (0.00, 0.02) 0.26 0.00 (−0.01, 0.01) 0.34
Diabetes empowerment 0.06 (−0.18, 0.3) 0.60 0.07 (−0.17, 0.31) 0.58 0.06 (−0.18, 0.3) 0.61
A1c −0.05 (− 0.17, 0.07) 0.42 −0.05 (− 0.17, 0.07) 0.38 −0.05 (− 0.17, 0.07) 0.41
Self-care −0.06 (− 0.15, 0.04) 0.23 −0.05 (− 0.15, 0.04) 0.25 −0.06 (− 0.15, 0.03) 0.21
Comorbidities 0.23*** (0.17, 0.3) < 0.001 0.23*** (0.17, 0.29) < 0.001 0.23*** (0.17, 0.3) < 0.001
Neighborhood economic disadvantage
 Low −0.34 (− 0.92, 0.25) 0.26
 Medium REF  
 High 0.60* (0.10, 1.09) 0.02
Neighborhood residential instability
 Low 0.01 (− 0.55, 0.57) 0.97
 Medium REF  
 High − 0.39 (− 0.87, 0.09) 0.11
Neighborhood ethnic heterogeneity
 Low −0.08 (− 0.55, 0.39) 0.74
 Medium REF  
 High − 0.08 (− 0.51, 0.36) 0.73
NSD (composite measure)
 Low − 0.04 (− 0.50, 0.42) 0.87
 Medium REF  
 High 0.08 (− 0.40, 0.56) 0.75
  1. Model 1 - Individual demographic variables. Model 2 - Individual demographic, psychosocial, and clinical variables. Model 3 - Individual demographic, psychosocial, and clinical variables and separate NSD measures. Model 4 - Individual demographic, psychosocial, and clinical variables and composite NSD measure
  2. NSD refers to neighborhood social disorganization
  3. * p < 0.05
  4. ** p < 0.01
  5. *** p < 0.001
  6. aIn all models, variables were grand mean centered to increase interpretability