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Table 4 Cases of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors Induced Diabetes Mellitus

From: Spectrum of immune checkpoint inhibitors-induced endocrinopathies in cancer patients: a scoping review of case reports

Variable Information
Reports 55
Cases 66
Gender Males = 42; Females = 24
Age (years) Median = 63.5; Mean ± SD = 62 ± 13.2; Range = 28–84
Pertinent medical history PHx diabetes: Reported = 36; Not reported = 30 FHx diabetes: Reported 27; Not reported = 39 Hx AutoD: Reported = 15; Not reported = 51
Type of cancer (all metastatic) Melanoma = 30; Non-small cell lung cancer = 10; Renal cell carcinoma = 7; Lung cancer = 11; Urothelial carcinoma = 2, Small cell jaw cancer = 1, Small cell tonsillar cancer = 1; Small cell maxillary sinus cancer = 1; Hodgkin’s lymphoma = 1, Cholangiocarcinoma = 1, Not reported = 1
Check point inhibitor Drug D/C?: Pembro = 13; Nivo = 32; Nivo + Ipi = 6; Pembro + Ipi = 1; Ipi, then Pembro = 5; Ipi, then Nivo = 3; Avelu + Utomi = 1; Atezo = 2; Unnamed PDL-1 = 2; Ipi = 1 Yes = 22, No = 15, Ipi stopped/Pembro continued = 1, Not reported = 28
Clinical presentation DKA = 43; Hyperglycemia = 20; Not reported = 3
Onset (weeks) after first dose Median = 7, Mean ± SD = 11.7 ± 11.7 Range 1–52
Biochemical tests ↑Glucose = 57; ↑A1c = 49; ↑β-OHB = 10 ↓pH = 35; ↓C-pep = 48
Antibody evaluation Any antibodies (GAD65, IA2, ZnT8, IAA) positive = 34 (51.5%) Antibodies negative = 27 (41%) Antibodies not reported = 5 (7.5%)
Pancreatic imaging CT with ↓ volume or atrophy = 3, CT with pancreatitis = 1; MRI with diffuse inflammation = 1
CTCAE severity grade reported Yes = 4; Not reported = 62
Therapy at onset at diagnosis in addition to insulin Metformin =1, Glimepiride = 1,glyburide = 1; Diet = 2, High dose steroids* = 10
Outcome Remained insulin-dependent = 52, Recovered = 1, Not reported = 13
  1. *Treatment dose steroids as part of chemotherapy regimen (n = 2), treatment of other autoimmune manifestation (n = 3), to reverse autoimmune diabetes (n = 2), to decrease insulin resistance (n = 1); for adrenal insufficiency (n = 2)