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Table 2 Negative binomial mixeda effects regression: Association between number of visits and patient characteristics

From: Identification of population characteristics through implementation of the Comprehensive Diabetic Retinopathy Program

  Cohort: visited the clinic for at least 12 months
  n = 963
Effect Estimate Standard Error t Value Pr > |t|
Age 0.00007 0.002 0.04 0.969
Female (ref = Male) 0.03 0.04 0.75 0.454
Race
 Black or African American (ref = Asian) −0.03 0.11 −0.28 0.776
 Unknown/other/mixed (ref = Asian) 0.03 0.13 0.22 0.826
 White or Caucasian (ref = Asian)b 0.20 0.10 1.98 0.048
Diabetes type
 Type 1 (ref = Type 2)b −0.40 0.08 −5.26 <.0001
 Undefined (ref = Type 2)b 0.21 0.06 3.28 0.001
Duration of diabetes 10 years (ref < 10 years)b 0.18 0.05 3.56 0.0004
History of kidney diagnosis Yes (ref = No) 0.08 0.05 1.74 0.082
Maximum systolic blood pressure (scaled by 10)b 0.05 0.01 4.38 <.0001
Maximum diastolic blood pressure (scaled by 10)b 0.16 0.03 6.00 <.0001
Maximum HbA1cb −0.08 0.03 −2.52 0.012
Has Diabetic Retinopathy (ref = no) −0.20 0.26 −0.76 0.446
Interaction between maximum HbA1c and DRb 0.09 0.03 2.75 0.006
  1. a Patients’ providers were modeled as a random effect to set apart characteristics attributed to providers rather than to patients
  2. b Denotes statistically significant effects associated with the number of visits at alpha = .05