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Table 2 Demographic- and serum-based biomarkers for fibrosis staging

From: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes: where do Diabetologists stand?

Biomarker Components Cut-offs to rule out/in advanced fibrosis
FIB-4 index [58] Age, AST, ALT, and platelets < 1.3 > 2.67
NAFLD fibrosis score [58] Age, BMI, IFG and diabetes, AST-to-ALT ratio, platelets, and albumin < - 1.455
> 0.676
Enhanced liver fibrosis test [59] Age, hyaluronic acid, aminoterminal propeptide of type III collagen, and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1 ≥9.8
  1. Abbreviations: BMI Body mass index, IFG Impaired fasting glucose, AST Aspartate aminotransferase, ALT Alanine aminotransferase, FIB Fibrosis index
  2. NFS is calculated using the formula: NFS = − 1.675 + 0.037 – age (years) + 0.094 – BMI (kg/m2) + 1.13 × IFG/diabetes (yes = 1, no = 0) + 0.99 × AST/ALT ratio – 0.013 × platelet count (× 109/l) – 0.66 × albumin (g/dl). (https://nafldscore.com/)
  3. FIB-4 is calculated using the formula: FIB-4 = Age (years) × AST (U/L)/[PLT(109/L) × ALT1/2 (U/L)] (https://www.hepatitisc.uw.edu/page/clinical-calculators/fib-4)