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Table 2 Comparison of key glucometrics between June to August 2013 and June to August 2016

From: Evaluating the effectiveness of a multi-faceted inpatient diabetes management program among hospitalised patients with diabetes mellitus

  June to August 2013 June to August 2016 Effect measuresa
(95% CI)
P-value
Patient-days 21,399 17,876   
Admissions 3315 3130   
HYPOGLYCEMIA METRICS
Patient-day level
  Hypoglycemia, any glucose, n (%)
    <  4 mmol/L 997 (4.7) 588 (3.3) 0.71 (0.61 to 0.83) <  0.001
    < 3 mmol/L 196 (0.9) 83 (0.5) 0.51 (0.38 to 0.7) <  0.001
    < 2.5 mmol/Lb 55 (0.3) 22 (0.1) 0.52 (0.28 to 0.96) 0.035
Admission level
  Hypoglycemia, any glucose, n (%)
    < 4 mmol/L 556 (16.8) 384 (12.3) 0.72 (0.62 to 0.83) <  0.001
    < 3 mmol/L 141 (4.3) 71 (2.3) 0.54 (0.4 to 0.73) <  0.001
    < 2.5 mmol/Lb 42 (1.3) 17 (0.5) 0.45 (0.26 to 0.78) 0.005
  Recurrence of hypoglycemia, number of days with any glucose < 4 mmol/L, n (%)
   Exactly 1 dayc 345 (10.4) 252 (8.1) 0.76 (0.64 to 0.9) 0.002
   2 or more daysc 211 (6.4) 132 (4.2) 0.65 (0.52 to 0.83) <  0.001
HYPERGLYCEMIA AND OTHER METRICS
Patient-day level
  Hyperglycemia, any glucose, n (%)
    > 14 mmol/L 5929 (27.7) 4678 (26.2) 0.84 (0.71 to 0.99) 0.041
    >  20 mmol/L 1255 (5.9) 843 (4.7) 0.81 (0.66 to 0.99) 0.039
  Mean glucose in desired range, n (%)
   Within 4–10 mmol/L 13,206 (61.7) 11,357 (63.5) 1.11 (0.93 to 1.33) 0.237
  Mean glucose, mean (SD) 9.7 (3.3) 9.6 (3.2) 0.98 (0.94 to 1.02) 0.342
  SD of glucose, mean (SD) 2.4 (1.7) 2.3 (1.6) 0.95 (0.92 to 0.98) 0.001
Admission level
  Hyperglycemia, any glucose, n (%)
    > 14 mmol/L 1838 (55.4) 1616 (51.6) 0.87 (0.79 to 0.97) 0.01
    >  20 mmol/L 608 (18.3) 459 (14.7) 0.79 (0.69 to 0.92) 0.002
  Mean glucose in desired range, n (%)
   Within 4–10 mmol/L 1986 (59.9) 1957 (62.5) 1.14 (1.02 to 1.27) 0.022
  HGI, mean (SD) 0.49 (0.99) 0.42 (0.92) 0.68 (0.53 to 0.88) 0.004
  Mean glucose, mean (SD) 9.8 (2.7) 9.6 (2.6) 0.98 (0.96 to 0.99) <  0.001
  SD of glucose, mean (SD) 2.9 (1.4) 2.7 (1.3) 0.95 (0.92 to 0.97) <  0.001
  LOS (in days), mean (SD)d 7.5 (7.9) 7.2 (6.8) 1.01 (0.96 to 1.05) 0.793
  1. aThe associations between glucometrics and the time periods were fully adjusted with respect to age, gender, ethnicity groups, emergency admission, type of ward, and illness severity status. For mean glucose, SD (standard deviation) of glucose, HGI (Hyperglycemia Index) with threshold being 14 mmol/L, and LOS (length of stay), Poisson regression model with Generalized Estimation Equations (GEE) was applied and mean ratios were reported with 95% CI within the brackets. For other metrics, logistic regression model with GEE was applied and odds ratios were reported with 95% CI within the brackets
  2. bBlood glucose < 2.5 mmol/L is considered biochemically severe hypoglycemia
  3. cFor recurrence of hypoglycemia, the comparison reference group is always admissions without any glucose < 4 mmol/L, i.e., zero days with any glucose < 4 mmol/L.
  4. dThe associations between length of stay and the time periods were fully adjusted with respect to age, gender, ethnicity groups, emergency admission, type of ward, illness severity status, and glucometrics