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Table 1 Baseline patient’s characteristics, overall and by class of anti-hyperglycemic agent

From: Hypoglycemic episodes in hospitalized people with diabetes in Portugal: the HIPOS-WARD study

  Total
(n = 176)
Class of anti-hyperglycemic agent therapy P-value
Insulin-based therapy
(n = 88)
Secretagogue-based therapy
(n = 53)
Non-secretagogue-based therapy
(n = 17)
Insulin + secretagogue
therapy
(n = 18)
Gender (female), n(%) 97 (55.1) 42 (47.7) 33 (62.3) 11 (64.7) 11 (61.1) 0.269a
Age, median (min;max), (years) 75.0 (28;98) 73.5 (28;92) 78.0 (50;96) 72.0 (45;98) 78.5 (58;88) 0.009b
BMI, mean (SD), (kg/m2) 26.0 (4.6) 25.2 (4.7) 27.4 (4.3) 25.8 (4.7) 25.5 (4.6) 0.032b
Patient institutionalized, n(%) 33 (18.8) 13 (14.8) 11 (20.8) 2 (11.8) 7 (38.9) 0.122c
Patient lives alone, n(%) 33 (23.1) 19 (25.3) 8 (19.0) 4 (26.7) 2 (18.2) 0.880c
Work status, n(%)       0.015c
 Full time 15 (8.6) 14 (16.1) 0 (0.0) 1 (5.9) 0 (0.0)  
 Partial time 1 (0.6) 0 (0.0) 1 (1.9) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
 Retired/disabled 128 (73.1) 55 (63.2) 46 (86.8) 11 (64.7) 16 (88.9)  
 Other 31 (17.8) 18 (20.6) 6 (11.3) 5 (29.4) 2 (11.1)  
Functionally dependent, n(%) 70 (61.4) 33 (70.2%) 24 (60.0) 6 (60.0) 7 (41.2) 0.211a
Type of diabetes, n(%)       < 0.001c
 Type 1 18 (10.2) 18 (20.5) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
 Type 2 152 (86.4) 64 (72.7) 53 (100.0) 17 (100.0) 18 (100.0)  
 Other form of diabetes 6 (3.4) 6 (6.8) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
Diabetes duration, median (min;max), (years) 11.0 (0.0;52.0) 17.0 (0.7;52.0) 9.0 (0.0;47.0) 1.0 (1.0;30.0) 18.0 (1.0;45.0) < 0.001b
Diabetes management, n(%)       0.383a
 Solely managed by self 75 (42.6) 36 (40.9) 23 (43.4) 10 (58.8) 6 (33.3)  
 Solely managed by other 52 (29.5) 22 (25.0) 19 (35.8) 4 (23.5) 7 (38.9)  
 Occasional assistance 49 (27.8) 30 (34.1) 11 (20.8) 3 (17.6) 5 (27.8)  
Usual diabetes outpatient care, n(%)d       < 0.001c
 Primary healthcare 111 (63.1) 40 (45.5) 50 (94.3) 10 (58.8) 11 (61.1)  
 Hospital outpatient 45 (25.6) 35 (39.8) 0 (0.0) 5 (29.4) 5 (27.8)  
 Private consultation 7 (4.0) 5 (5.7) 1 (1.9) 0 (0.0) 1 (5.6)  
 Other 11 (6.3) 8 (9.1) 0 (0.0) 2 (11.8) 1 (5.6)  
 Without follow-up 2 (1.1) 0 (0.0) 2 (3.8) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
Chronic diabetes complications, n(%)d
 Eye complications 63 (50.0) 43 (62.3) 12 (40.0) 3 (20.0) 5 (41.7) 0.011a
 Neuropathy 29 (26.1) 17 (27.9) 6 (21.4) 1 (9.1) 5 (45.5) 0.249c
 Nephropathy 74 (47.4) 37 (48.1) 25 (53.2) 5 (31.3) 7 (43.8) 0.493a
 Lower limb complications 24 (15.9) 16 (20.8) 4 (8.9) 2 (13.3) 2 (14.3) 0.393c
 Known atherosclerotic disease 66 (47.8) 30 (44.8) 19 (46.3) 7 (46.7) 10 (66.7) 0.488a
 Coronary heart disease 32 (57.1) 17 (63.0) 8 (53.3) 3 (50.0) 4 (50.0) 0.848c
 Cerebrovascular disease 31 (55.4) 15 (57.7) 12 (70.6) 3 (50.0) 1 (14.3) 0.092c
 Motor complications 19 (33.3) 11 (42.3) 6 (33.3) 1 (16.7) 1 (14.3) 0.462c
 Peripheral artery disease 25 (61.0) 10 (58.8) 6 (54.5) 3 (50.0) 6 (85.7) 0.535c
 Other atherosclerotic dis 8 (21.1) 4 (23.5) 1 (9.1) 1 (20.0) 2 (40.0) 0.612c
Previous hypoglycemia in last 12 months, n(%) 58 (47.5) 39 (66.1) 11 (28.9) 4 (30.8) 4 (33.3) 0.001a
  1. SD Standard deviation
  2. a Chi-square test; b Kruskal-Wallis test; c Monte Carlo methods; d Each patient can have more than one