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Table 2 Hypoglycemia episode characterization, overall and by class of anti-hyperglycemic agent

From: Hypoglycemic episodes in hospitalized people with diabetes in Portugal: the HIPOS-WARD study

  Total
(n = 176)
Class of anti-hyperglycemic agent therapy P-value
Insulin-based therapy
(n = 88)
Secretagogue-based therapy
(n = 53)
Non-secretagogue-based therapy
(n = 17)
Insulin + secretagogue therapy
(n = 18)
Hypoglycemia episode, n(%) 176 (100.0) 88 (50.0) 53 (30.1) 17 (9.7) 18 (10.2)  
HbA1c, median (min;max)(%) 6.9 (4.0;27.0) 7.6 (4.6;27.0) 5.8 (4.0;14.2) 5.8 (4.6;9.9) 7.0 (5.4;10.3) < 0.001b
Lowest glycemia, median (min;max)(mg/dL) 74.0 (20.0;268.0) 56.0 (20.0;268.0) 80.0 (30.0;159.0) 76.5 (39.0;170.0) 91.5 (25.0;160.0) 0.041b
Complications as result of hypo, n(%) 26 (14.9) 15 (17.2) 7 (13.2) 0 (0.0) 4 (22.2) 0.240c
 Major trauma 3 (11.5) 3 (20.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0.719c
 Acute atherosclerotic event 1 (3.8) 1 (6.7) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) > 0.999c
 Other CV event 4 (15.4) 1 (6.7) 1 (14.3) 0 (0.0) 2 (50.0) 0.137c
 Neurologic 6 (23.1) 6 (40.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0.089c
 Infection 6 (23.1) 4 (26.7) 1 (14.3) 0 (0.0) 1 (25.0) > 0.999c
 Other 9 (34.6) 3 (20.0) 5 (71.4) 0 (0.0) 1 (25.0) 0.055c
Repeated hypo during hospitalization, n(%) 63 (36.0) 41 (47.1) 14 (26.4) 5 (29.4) 3 (16.7) 0.018a
Lenght of stay in ward, median (min;max)(h) 146.6 (1.6;1782.3) 159.6 (1.6;1782.3) 118.4 (19.4;781.9) 168.6 (34.7;935.0) 165.7 (34.4;1583.7) 0.275b
Discharge destination, n(%)       0.198c
 Home 113 (64.2) 52 (59.1) 40 (75.5) 11 (64.7) 10 (55.6)  
 Ambulatory 24 (13.6) 17 (19.3) 2 (3.8) 2 (11.8) 3 (16.7)  
 Institution 30 (17.0) 12 (13.6) 10 (18.9) 3 (17.6) 5 (27.8)  
 Other hospital 1 (0.6) 1 (1.1) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
 Death 8 (4.5) 6 (6.8) 1 (1.9) 1 (5.9) 0 (0.0)  
Risk factors for hypoglycemia, n(%)e
 > 75 years 87 (49.4) 36 (40.9) 32 (60.4) 6 (35.3) 13 (72.2) 0.017a
 Dementia 28 (16.7) 11 (13.4) 11 (21.2) 2 (12.5) 4 (22.2) 0.543c
 Major sensorial impairment
  Blindness 13 (7.4) 9 (10.3) 2 (3.8) 0 (0.0) 2 (11.1) 0.297c
  Deafness 6 (3.4) 2 (2.3) 1 (1.9) 0 (0.0) 3 (16.7) 0.050c
 Hypothyroidism 14 (10.1) 9 (13.4) 3 (7.3) 1 (7.1) 1 (6.3) 0.811c
 Adrenal failure 3 (2.2) 2 (2.9) 0 (0.0) 1 (7.1) 0 (0.0) 0.267c
 Severe renal failure 19 (38.0) 11 (39.3) 4 (25.0) 1 (50.0) 3 (75.0) 0.263c
 Hepatic failure 7 (4.1) 5 (5.9) 2 (3.8) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0.875c
 Cachexia/significant malnourishment 19 (10.9) 15 (17.2) 2 (3.8) 1 (6.3) 1 (5.6) 0.068d
 Brittle diabetes 21 (14.9) 15 (23.1) 4 (9.3) 2 (12.5) 0 (0.0) 0.049c
 Weaning of corticosteroid drugs 10 (5.8) 4 (4.7) 1 (1.9) 4 (23.5) 1 (5.6) 0.025c
 Previous hypo in last 12 months 58 (47.5) 39 (66.1) 11 (28.9) 4 (30.8) 4 (33.3) 0.001a
 Lifestyle factors
  Irregular meals 52 (37.1) 28 (36.8) 13 (32.5) 6 (54.5) 5 (38.5) 0.606c
  Shift work 4 (2.4) 4 (4.7) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0.515c
  Other 7 (4.0) 5 (5.7) 2 (3.8) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0.872c
 Polypharmacy 147 (85.0) 69 (81.2) 45 (84.9) 16 (94.1) 17 (94.4) 0.412c
High risk for complications after the event
 Coronary heart disease 32 (25.0) 17 (26.6) 8 (21.6) 3 (21.4) 4 (30.8) 0.897c
 Cerebrovascular disease 31 (24.2) 15 (23.8) 12 (30.8) 3 (21.4) 1 (8.3) 0.613c
 Heart failure 48 (28.9) 20 (23.8) 19 (36.5) 3 (23.1) 6 (35.3) 0.372d
 Peripheral artery disease 25 (22.1) 10 (18.5) 6 (18.2) 3 (21.4) 6 (50.0) 0.151c
 Osteoporosis 8 (7.6) 3 (5.4) 3 (10.0) 1 (9.1) 1 (12.5) 0.518c
 Living alone 33 (18.8) 19 (21.6) 8 (15.1) 4 (23.5) 2 (11.1) 0.642c
  1. a Chi-square test; b Kruskal-Wallis test; c Monte Carlo methods; d Fisher’s exact test; e Each patient can have more than one; Polyphramacy: > 5 distinct drugs, for one or more conditions