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Table 3 Characterization by type of diabetes

From: Hypoglycemic episodes in hospitalized people with diabetes in Portugal: the HIPOS-WARD study

  Total
(n = 176)
Type of diabetes P-value
Type 1
(n = 18)
Type 2
(n = 152)
Hypoglycemia episode, n(%) 176 (100.0) 18 (10.2) 152 (86.4)  
Gender (female), n(%) 97 (55.1) 6 (33.3) 88 (57.9) 0.048a
Age, median (min;max), (years) 75.0 (28;98) 49.5 (28.0;74.0) 78.0 (35.0;98.0) < 0.001b
BMI, median (min;max), (kg/m2) 26.0 (4.6) 22.9 (18.4;31.6) 26.3 (15.6;38.8) 0.009d
Diabetes duration, median (min;max), (years) 11.0 (0.0;52.0) 22.0 (4.0;52.0) 10.0 (0.0;51.0) 0.001b
Diabetes management, n(%)     0.013a
 Solely managed by self 75 (42.6) 13 (72.2) 58 (38.2)  
 Solely managed by other 52 (29.5) 1 (5.6) 50 (32.9)  
 Occasional assistance 49 (27.8) 4 (22.2) 44 (28.9)  
Usual diabetes outpatient care, n(%)f     0.001c
 Primary health care 111 (63.1) 4 (22.2) 104 (68.4)  
 Hospital outpatient 45 (25.6) 11 (61.1) 31 (20.4)  
 Private consultation 7 (4.0) 1 (5.6) 6 (3.9)  
 Other 11 (6.3) 2 (11.1) 9 (5.9)  
 Without follow-up 2 (1.1) 0 (0.0) 2 (1.3)  
Chronic diabetes complications, n(%)f
 Eye complications 63 (50.0) 13 (81.3) 48 (46.2) 0.014e
 Neuropathy 29 (26.1) 7 (50.0) 19 (20.9) 0.040e
 Nephropathy 74 (47.4) 6 (37.5) 67 (49.6) 0.359a
 Lower limb complications 24 (15.9) 2 (11.8) 20 (15.6) > 0.999e
 Known atherosclerotic disease 66 (47.8) 2 (14.3) 62 (51.7) 0.008a
  Coronary heart disease 32 (57.1) 2 (100.0) 29 (55.8)  
  Cerebrovascular disease 31 (55.4) 1 (100.0) 30 (56.6)  
  Motor complications 19 (33.3) 0 (0.0) 19 (35.8)  
  Peripheral artery disease 25 (61.0) 1 (100.0) 24 (63.2)  
  Other atherosclerotic dis 8 (21.1) 0 (0.0) 7 (20.0)  
Previous hypoglycemia in last 12 months, n(%) 58 (47.5) 12 (85.7%) 42 (40.4%) 0.001a
Repeated hypo during hospitalization, n(%) 63 (36.0) 7 (41.2%) 51 (33.6%) 0.530a
Length of stay in ward, median (min;max)(h) 146.6 (1.6;1782.3)    
Discharge destination, n(%)     0.052c
 Home 113 (64.2) 13 (72.2) 98 (64.5)  
 Ambulatory 24 (13.6) 5 (27.8) 16 (10.5)  
 Institution 30 (17.0) 0 (0.0) 29 (19.1)  
 Other hospital 1 (0.6) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.7)  
 Death 8 (4.5) 0 (0.0) 8 (5.3)  
Risk factors for hypoglycemia, n(%)f
 > 75 years 87 (49.4) 0 (0.0) 86 (56.6) < 0.001a
 Dementia 28 (16.7) 0 (0.0) 28 (19.0) 0.081e
 Major sensorial impairment
  Blindness 13 (7.4) 4 (23.5) 8 (5.3) 0.021e
  Deafness 6 (3.4) 1 (5.9) 5 (3.3) 0.476e
 Hypothyroidism 14 (10.1) 3 (18.8) 11 (9.4) 0.376e
 Adrenal failure 3 (2.2) 1 (7.1) 2 (1.7) 0.288e
 Severe renal failure 19 (38.0) 2 (40.0) 17 (38.6) NA
 Hepatic failure 7 (4.1) 0 (0.0) 7 (4.7) > 0.999e
 Cachexia/significant malnourishment 19 (10.9) 3 (17.6) 12 (7.9) 0.181e
 Brittle diabetes 21 (14.9) 6 (46.2) 13 (10.5) 0.003e
 Weaning of corticosteroid drugs 10 (5.8) 1 (5.9) 9 (6.0) > 0.999e
 Previous hypo in the last 12 months 58 (47.5) 12 (85.7) 42 (40.4) 0.001a
 Lifestyle factors
  Irregular meals 52 (37.1) 8 (50.0) 41 (34.7) 0.235a
  Shift work 4 (2.4) 3 (18.8) 1 (0.7) 0.003e
  Other 7 (4.0) 1 (5.9) 5 (3.3) 0.478e
 Polypharmacy 147 (85.0) 7 (41.2) 135 (90.0) < 0.001e
High risk for complications after the event
 Coronary heart disease 32 (25.0) 2 (14.3) 29 (26.4) 0.514e
 Cerebrovascular disease 31 (24.2) 1 (7.7) 30 (27.0) 0.182e
 Heart failure 48 (28.9) 0 (0.0) 48 (33.6) 0.004a
 Peripheral artery disease 25 (22.1) 1 (7.7) 24 (25.0) 0.291e
 Osteoporosis 8 (7.6) 1 (6.7) 7 (8.1) > 0.999e
 Living alone 33 (18.8) 9 (50.0) 22 (14.5) 0.001e
  1. a Chi-square test; b Kruskal-Wallis test; c Monte Carlo approach; d ANOVA; e Fisher’s exact test; f Each patient can have more than one; Polyphramacy: > 5 distinct drugs, for one or more conditions