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Table 1 Clinical Trials of Fasting Regimens in Patients with and without Diabetes

From: Intermittent fasting: is there a role in the treatment of diabetes? A review of the literature and guide for primary care physicians

Intermittent Fasting Protocol Description Effects of Intermittent Fasting vs. Baseline
Alternate Day Fasting One day of fasting/One day of ad libitum feeding Trepanowski et al [11]. (6 months) Average Baseline Values
Weight: 96 kg
Fasting Glucose: 90 mg/dL
Fasting Insulin: 18 uIU/mL
HOMA-IR: 4.1
Results
- Decreased body weight by 6.8%
- Decreased fasting glucose by 6.3%
- Decreased fasting insulin by 7.5%
- Decreased HOMA-IR by 2.49%
   Catenacci et al. [12] (8 weeks) Average Baseline Values
Weight: 94.7 kg
Fasting glucose: 88.4 mg/dL
Leptin: 29.8 ng/mL
Results
- Decreased body weight by 8.2 kg
- Decreased glucose by 6.0 mg/dL
- Decreased leptin by 13.9 ng
   Bhutani et al. [13] (12 weeks) Average Baseline Values
Body weight: 94 kg
Fasting Glucose: 98 mg/dL
Fasting insulin: 21.8 uIU/mL
Results
- Decreased body weight by 3 kg
- Decreased fasting glucose by 3%
- Decreased fasting insulin by 7%
   Bhutani et al. [14] (8 weeks) Average Baseline Values:
Body weight: 96.4 kg
Leptin and Adiponectin (see study)
Results:
- Decreased body weight by 5.7 kg
- Decreased leptin by 21%
- Increased adiponectin by 30%
   Varady et al. [15] (12 weeks) Average Baseline Values:
Body weight: 77 kg
Adiponectin: 10728 ng/mL
Leptin: 25 ng/mL
Results
- Decreased body weight by 5.2 kg
- Increased adiponectin by 0.7μg/ml
- Decreased leptin by 10 ng/ml
   Gabel et al. [16] (12 months) Average Baseline Values
Body weight: 95 kg
Fasting Glucose: 99 mg/dL
Fasting Insulin: 23 uIU/mL
Results:
- Decreased body weight by 8%
- Decreased fasting insulin by 52%
- Decreased Fasting glucose by 3%
   Hoddy et al. [17] (10 weeks) Average Baseline Values
Body Weight: 94 kg/97 kg (timing of fasting day single low calorie meal: Lunch/Dinner)
BMI: 35/34 kg/m2
Fasting Glucose: 96/100 mg/dL
Fasting insulin: 12/11 uIU/mL
HOMA-IR: 3.0/3.0
Results
- Body weight decreased by 3.5/4.1 kg
- BMI reduced by 1.3/1.4 kg/m2
- Fasting Glucose, Insulin, and HOMA-IR did not undergo statistically significant changes
5/2 method Complete fasting on 2 non-consecutive days/5 days of ad libitum feeding Carter et al .[18] (12 weeks) Average Baseline Values:
HbA1C: 7.2%
Body Weight: 99 kg
Results:
- Decreased HbA1C by 0.7%
- Decreased body weight by 8 kg
   Carter et al. [19] (12 months) Average Baseline Values:
HbA1C: 7.2%
Body Weight: 100 kg
Results
- Decreased body weight by 6.8 kg
- Decreased HbA1C by 0.3%
   Sundfor et al. [20] (6 months) Average Baseline Values:
Body Weight: 108.6 kg
HbA1C: 5.6%
Results:
- Decreased body weight by 9.1 kg
- Decreased HbA1C by 0.3%
   Corley et al. [21] (12 weeks) Average Baseline Values (Consecutive/Non-consecutive 2 day fast)
Weight: 108.7/109.8 kg
BMI: 36.6/36.8 kg/m2
HbA1C: 8.4/8.2%
Results (Consecutive/Non-consecutive 2 day fast)
- Decreased weight by 3.1/3.6 kg
- Decreased BMI by 0.5/0.8 kg/m2
- Decreased HbA1C by 0.6/0.7%
Time Restricted Feeding Daily 12–20 h fast/4–12 h feeding window Moro et al. [22] (8 weeks) Average Baseline Values:
Fat mass: 10.90 kg
Fasting glucose: 96.64 mg/dL
Fasting insulin: 2.78 mU/mL
Adiponectin: 11.8 μg/mL
Leptin: 2.1 ng/mL
Results:
- Decreased fat mass by 1.62 kg
- Decreased fasting glucose by 10.72 mg/dL
- Decreased fasting insulin by 1.01 mU/mL
- Increased adiponectin by 2.1 μg/mL
- Decreased leptin by 0.3 ng/mL
   Sutton et al. [23] (5 weeks) Average Baseline Values:
Insulin: 25.1 mU/L
Insulinogenic Index: 113 U/mg
Glucose: 100 mg/dL
Results
- Decreased fasting insulin by 0.4 mU/L
- Increased insulinogenic index (marker of Beta cell responsiveness) by 14 U/mg
- No significant change in fasting glucose
   Hutchison et al. [24] (1 week) Average Baseline Values:
Weight: 105.7 kg
BMI: 33.9 kg/m2
Fasting Glucose: 5.8 mmol/L
Results:
- Decreased glycemic response to test meal by 36%
- No significant weight reduction
   Cienfuegos et al. [25] (8 weeks) (4 h feeding window) Average Baseline Values:
Body Weight: 101 kg
Fasting Glucose: 88 mg/dL
Fasting insulin: 12 uIU/mL
HOMA-IR: 2.7
HbA1C: 5.9%
Results:
- Body weight decreased by 3.2%
- Fasting glucose decreased by 5.0 mg/dL
- Fasting insulin decreased by 2.3 uIU/mL
- HOMA-IR decreased by 29%
- HbA1C decreased by 0.2%
   Cienfuegos et al. [25] (8 weeks) (6 h feeding window) Average Baseline Values:
Body Weight: 99 kg
Fasting Glucose: 94 mg/dL
Fasting insulin: 16 uIU/mL
HOMA-IR: 3.7
HbA1C: 5.9%
Results:
- Body weight decreased by 3.2%
- Fasting glucose decreased by 2.3 mg/dL
- Fasting insulin decreased by 1.9 uIU/mL
- HOMA-IR decreased by 12%
- HbA1C decreased by 0.2%