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Table 5 Multivariable logistic regression analysis of Diabetic Retinopathy in Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Ethiopia, 2020

From: Determinants of diabetic retinopathy in Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Ethiopia: a case–control study

Variable Category Cases (n = 142) Control (n = 140) COR(95% CI) AOR(95% CI) P-value
Sex Male 80(56.3) 60(42.9) 1.72(1.074–2.75) 3.65(0.47–28.01) 0.213
Female 62(43.7) 80(57.1) 1 1  
Glucometer at home Yes 30(21.1) 56(40.0) 0.40(0.23–0.68) 0.048(0.005–0.49 0.011*
No 112(78.9) 84(60.0) 1 1  
Diet Plan Yes 14(9.9) 39(27.9) 0.28(0.147–0.55) 0.33(0.032–3.47) 0.357
No 127(90.1) 101(72.1) 1 1  
Exercise Adherence Adhered 16(11.3) 50(35.7) 0.22(0.122–0.42) 0.075(0.007–0.84) 0.036*
Not adhered 126(88.7) 90(64.3) 1 1  
Alcohol Yes 54(38.0) 28(20.0) 2.45(1.43–4.19) 7.70(0.64–92.22) 0.107
No 88(62.0) 112(80.0) 1 1  
Knowledge of DR Poor 74(52.1) 52(37.1) 1 1  
Good 55(38.7) 66(47.1) 0.58(0.35–0.96) 0.34(0.04–2.75) 0.317
Excellent 13(9.2) 22(15.7) 0.41(0.19–0.89) 0.021(0.001–0.41) 0.011
Attitude toward DR Negative 48(33.8) 30(21.4) 1.87(1.09–3.19) 0.83(0.127–5.43) 0.847
Positive 94(66.2) 110(78.6) 1 1  
Duration of DM < 5 years 12(8.5) 82(58.6) 0.024(0.01–0.05) 0.005(0.00–0.10) 0.001*
5–10 years 26(18.3) 31(22.1) 0.136(0.06–0.30) 0.041(0.003–0.57) 0.018*
11–15 years 30(21.1) 15(10.7) 0.324(0.13–0.77) 0.092(0.006–1.38) 0.085
> 15 years 74(52.1) 12(8.6) 1   
Glycemic control Good 33(23.2) 107(76.4) 1 1  
Poor 109(76.8) 33(23.6) 10.7(6.17–18.58) 19.9(2.34–168.69) 0.006*
SBP < 140 mmHg 40(28.2) 116(82.9) 1 1  
≥ 140 mmHg 102(71.8) 24(17.1) 12.3(6.95–21.8) 23.4(2.56–215.36) 0.005*
Creatinine > 1.2 mg/dl 73(51.4) 44(31.4) 2.3(1.421–3.75) 3.45(0.55–21.45) 0.183
≤ 1.2 mg/dl 69(48.6) 96(68.6) 1 1  
Hyperlipidemia Yes 65(45.8) 28(20.0) 3.37(1.98–5.73) 2.85(0.43–18.61) 0.273
No 77(54.2) 112(80.0) 1 1  
Neuropathy Yes 41(28.9) 25(17.9) 1.86(1.06–3.28) 3.68(0.308–44.22) 0.303
No 101(71.1) 115(82.1) 1 1  
Nephropathy Yes 55(38.7) 21(15.0) 3.58(2.018–6.35) 17.85(2.01–158.1) 0.010*
No 87(61.3) 119(85.0) 1 1  
Health information Yes 23(16.2) 108(77.1) 0.057(0.03–0.10) 0.002(0.00–0.042)  < 0.001*
No 119(83.8) 32(22.9) 1 1  
Frequency of visit appointed Every month 21(14.8) 55(39.3) 0.08(0.04–0.16) 0.004(0.00–0.073)  < 0.001*
Every 3 months 25(17.6) 65(46.4) 0.08(0.041–0.15) 0.022(0.002–0.23) 0.002*
Every 6 months 96(67.6) 20(14.3) 1 1  
  1. *Significant at P-value < 0.05