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Table 3 Clinical and diagnostic features of diabetes in youth

From: Challenges in diagnosis and management of diabetes in the young

  Type 1 diabetes Type 2 diabetes Monogenic diabetes FCPD
Age at onset Any age after 6 months; most common in childhood and early adolescence Adolescence and young adulthood; onset in children becoming more common, although unusual before puberty Any age; usually presents before 25 years of age; Hyperglycemia in GCK defects can be present from birth Usually in the 2nd decade
Family history of diabetes Usually sporadic (>85 %) Strongly positive; usually on both sides of the family Positive for at least three generations, on one side of the family Unusual
Overweight/obesity Occurs at frequency similar to general population Common Occurs at frequency similar to general population Usually lean
Markers of insulin resistance Unusual Common Unusual Unusual
C-peptide levels Low or undetectable, particularly after 2 to 3 years of diagnosis May be supranormal, normal or low Usually lower than normal Low
Islet autoantibodies Present in majority of patients Usually absent Usually absent Usually absent