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Table 2 Risk factors for complications associated with hyperthyroidism in pregnancy

From: Graves’ hyperthyroidism in pregnancy: a clinical review

Risk factors [27, 28, 30]
• Long-standing GH
• Gestational hypertension
• Twin pregnancies
• Anemia
• Frequent infections (i.e., UTIs)
• Late presentation to obstetric clinic
• Inconsistent use of medications
• Abnormal outcomes in prior pregnancies
Possible complications
• Maternal [28]
Miscarriages
Gestational hypertension
Preeclampsia
Congestive heart failure
Thyroid storm
• Obstetrical
Premature delivery [82]
Placental abruption
Premature rupture of membrane
Gestational Hypertension
• Fetal
Congenital malformations [83]
Hyperthyroidism
Developmental dysplasia of the hip associated with first-trimester maternal hyperthyroidism [84]
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)
Small for gestational age (SGA) infants
Prematurity
Stillbirth
• Neonatal
Prematurity
Hyperthyroidism [32]
Neonatal central hypothyroidism [71]
Low birth weight [30]