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Table 1 Clinical, biochemical, psychological and behavioural parameters stratified by hospitalization and baseline DASS-21 score

From: Determinants of hospitalization in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes receiving a peer support intervention and JADE integrated care: the PEARL randomised controlled trial

  Hospital admission   Baseline DASS-21 score  
No (n = 484) Yes (n = 144) P value < 17 (n = 503) ≥17 (n = 124) P value
Age, years 54·1 ± 9·4 56·7 ± 8·6 0·003 54·9 ± 9·1 54·0 ± 9·7 0·358
Male, n(%) 274 (56·6) 81 (56·3) 0·939 295 (58·6) 59 (47·6) 0·026
Diabetes duration, years 9·1 ± 7·7 10·3 ± 7·8 0·122 9·4 ± 7·7 9·5 ± 8·0 0·845
Education
  < 6 years 165 (34·1) 63 (43·8) 0·079 171 (34·0) 57 (46·0) 0·005
 6–11 years 247 (51·0) 62 (43·1)   252 (50·1) 56 (45·2)  
  > 11 years 72 (14·9) 19 (13·2)   80 (15·9) 11 (8·9)  
Complications
 Chronic kidney disease 25 (5·2) 21 (14·8) < 0·001 34 (6·8) 12 (9·8) 0·251
 Diabetic retinopathy 166 (34·3) 56 (38·9) 0·312 169 (33·6) 53 (42·7) 0·057
 All heart events 41 (8·5) 26 (18·3) 0·001 52 (10·4) 15 (12·1) 0·586
JADE Risk categories
 Very high risk 73 (15·1) 36 (25·0) 0·003 86 (17·1) 23 (18·5) 0·474
 High risk 385 (79·5) 104 (72·2)   391 (77·7) 97 (78·2)  
 Medium risk 24 (5·0) 4 (2·8)   24 (4·8) 4 (3·2)  
 Low risk 2 (0·4) 0 (0·0)   2 (0·4) 0 (0·0)  
Treatments
Insulin 165 (34·1) 54 (37·5) 0·451 174 (34·6) 45 (36·3) 0·722
 Oral anti-diabetic drugs 407 (84·1) 127 (88·2) 0·226 423 (84·1) 110 (88·7) 0·197
 On BP drugs 305 (63·0) 104 (72·2) 0·042 327 (65·0) 81 (65·3) 0·948
 On lipid lowering drugs 194 (40·1) 84 (58·3) < 0·001 218 (43·3) 59 (47·6) 0·394
Risk factors control
 Body mass index, kg/m2 26·8 ± 4·3 27·1 ± 5·0 0·563 26·6 ± 4·3 27·8 ± 4·8 0·009
 Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 135·6 ± 18·2 136·4 ± 20·9 0·633 136·2 ± 18·4 134·2 ± 20·7 0·307
 Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 80·2 ± 10·5 79·0 ± 11·2 0·227 80·3 ± 10·5 78·6 ± 11·5 0·115
 Hemoglobin A1c, % (mmol/mol) 8.2 ± 1.6 (66.0 ± 17.9) 8.2 ± 1.6 (65.7 ± 17.7) 0.867 8.2 ± 1.6 (65.6 ± 17.7) 8.3 ± 1.7 (67.2 ± 18.7) 0.394
 Total cholesterol, mmol/L 4·91 ± 1·07 4·71 ± 1·06 0·044 4·83 ± 1·07 4·99 ± 1·08 0·160
 Triglyceride, mmol/L 1·40 (1·00–2·00) 1·49 (1·00–1·97) 0·704 1·40 (1·00–1·97) 1·52 (1·00–2·30) 0·076
 HDL-C, mmol/L 1·20 ± 0·36 1·23 ± 0·36 0·433 1·21 ± 0·35 1·17 ± 0·37 0·265
 LDL-C, mmol/L 2·92 ± 0·78 2·77 ± 0·91 0·046 2·86 ± 0·79 2·99 ± 0·91 0·131
 Estimated GFR, ml/min/1·73m2 111·9 ± 33·1 102·6 ± 36·8 0·005 110·2 ± 33·7 107·7 ± 36·1 0·471
 Microalbuminuria 127 (26·6) 39 (27·5) 0·843 134 (27·0) 31 (25·6) 0·765
Psychological assessment
 PHQ-9 score 4·1 ± 4·1 4·7 ± 4·2 0·131 3·1 ± 3·1 8·6 ± 4·9 < 0·001
 CDDS-15 score 36·8 ± 13·5 37·0 ± 12·2 0·849 34·8 ± 12·8 45·1 ± 11·6 < 0·001
 DASS-21 score
Total 9·3 ± 10·0 14·0 ± 14·0 < 0·001 5·9 ± 4·7 28·7 ± 11·3 < 0·001
DASS-depression 2.75 ± 3.80 4.23 ± 5.02 0.001 1.53 ± 1.85 9.48 ± 4.78 < 0·001
DASS-anxiety 2.71 ± 3.12 4.20 ± 4.63 < 0·001 1.76 ± 1.65 8.33 ± 4.39 < 0·001
DASS-stress 3.79 ± 3.97 5.24 ± 5.02 0.002 2.55 ± 2.47 10.59 ± 4.01 < 0·001
Medication adherence
 High 200 (43·8) 65 (47·8) 0·248 225 (47·3) 40 (34·5) 0·021
 Intermediate 228 (49·9) 66 (48·5)   225 (47·3) 68 (58·6)  
 Low 29 (6·3) 5 (3·7)   26 (5·5) 8 (6·9)  
  1. Definitions of risk categories
  2. 1. Very High-Risk group with clinically evident cardiovascular-renal complications
  3. 2. High-Risk group with ≥3 stratification parameters and/or values above the high specificity cut off for any one of the risk scores and/or eGFR< 60 ml/min/1.73 m2
  4. 3. Medium Risk group with two stratification parameters and values above the high sensitivity cut off but lower than the high specificity cut off for any of the risk scores and eGFR between 60-90 ml/min/1.73 m2 and
  5. 4. Low-Risk group with one or fewer stratification parameter and values below the high sensitivity cut off for all risk scores and eGFR≥90 ml/min/1.73 m2
  6. Definitions of complications and risk parameters:
  7. Chronic kidney disease (CKD): estimated glomerular filtration rate 15–60 ml/min per 1.73 m2
  8. Cardiovascular complication: coronary heart disease (myocardial infarction, unstable angina, percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary bypass operation), stroke, peripheral vascular disease (lower extremity amputation, absent foot pulses with ankle:brachial ratio < 0.9 and/or lower limb revascularization)
  9. Renal complications: End stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring dialysis and/or eGFR< 15 ml/min/1.73m2
  10. Microalbuminuria: urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR): ≥2.5 mg/mmol (men) and 3.5 mg/mmol (women)
  11. Macroalbuminuria: urinary ACR > 25 mg/mmol
  12. Retinopathy (typical retinal changes including vitrectomy, haemorrhages, and exudates)
  13. Medication adherence: measured by 4-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale where 4 is regarded as high adherence, score 2–3 as intermediate adherence, and 0–1 as low adherence