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Table 1 Summary of treatment-related changes in human skeletal architecture. Only published studies that reported defined skeletal architectural indices were included in the Table

From: The challenges of diagnosing osteoporosis and the limitations of currently available tools

  Areal BMD HR-pQCT, QCT QCT Bone biopsy/QCT
Location Spine Hip Radius/Tibia Spine Hip
Measure BMD
(Approx. % increase)
Per.Diam CoPo CtTh Tb CoPo CtTh BV/TV CoPo CtTh BV/TV
Bisphosphonates 4(a) 2-2.5(a)   ,NS(g) (g) ,NS(g)     (m)   NS(m)
Denosumab 5.5(b) 3(b)   ,NS(h) (h) (h)     (n)   
Teriparatide 9(c) 3(c) (f) ,NS(i) ,NS (i) ,(i)   NS(j) (k) (0) (p) (p)
Abaloparatide 11(d) 4(d)           
Romosozumab 13.5(e) 6.5(e)       (l) (l)    (l)
  1. BMD bone mineral density, Per.Diam periosteal diameter, CoPo cortical porosity, CtTh cortical thickness; Tb trabecular indices; BV/TV bone volume/tissue volume, NS not significant, HR-pQCT high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography, QCT quantitative computed tomography
  2. Notes:
  3. a. 12 months of treatment [53, 54, 56, 81, 82]
  4. b. 12 months of treatment [65]
  5. c. 18 months of treatment [66]
  6. d. 18 months of treatment [67]
  7. e. 12 months of treatment [68, 69]
  8. f. [71]
  9. g. Cortical volumetric BMD (Ct vBMD) as a surrogate for CtPo, Tb = Tb vBMD [83]; CtTh significant only for tibia, Tb vBMD increased at tibia [84]; Ct vBMD as a surrogate for CtPo with difference only in tibia [85, 86]
  10. h. CoPo as a surrogate for Ct vBMD, Tb as a marker of trabecular volumetric BMD (Tb vBMD) [83]; [70, 87]
  11. i. 24 months of treatment [70]; 18 months of treatment, increase in plate Tb number and thickness [88]; 18 months of treatment, increase in trabecular number [89]; 18 months of treatment, increase in CtTh in tibia only, reduction in trabecular thickness [90]
  12. j. [91]
  13. k. [92]
  14. l. [91, 93]
  15. m. [94]
  16. n. [95]
  17. o. [96]
  18. p. [97]