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Table 3 Effects of neighborhood variables and correlates on A1c, n = 424

From: How is neighborhood social disorganization associated with diabetes outcomes? A multilevel investigation of glycemic control and self-reported use of acute or emergency health care services

Variablea Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
Regression Coefficient p-value Regression Coefficient p-value Regression Coefficient p-value Regression Coefficient p-value
B (95% CI) B (95% CI) B (95% CI) B (95% CI)
Intercept 7.55 (7.48, 7.66) < 0.001 7.55 (7.45, 7.65) < 0.001 7.55 (7.45, 7.65) < 0.001 7.55 (7.45, 7.64) < 0.001
Sex
 Female REF   REF   REF   REF  
 Male 0.01 (−0.20, 0.22) 0.91 0.02 (− 0.18, 0.22) 0.84 0.02 (− 0.19, 0.22) 0.87 0.01 (− 0.19, 0.22) 0.90
Age −0.01 (− 0.01, 0.00) 0.28 0.00 (− 0.01, 0.01) 0.53 0.00 (− 0.01, 0.01) 0.48 0.00 (− 0.01, 0.01) 0.48
Race
 White REF   REF   REF   REF  
 Black 0.02 (−0.21, 0.25) 0.86 −0.03 (− 0.26, 0.19) 0.77 −0.06 (− 0.30, 0.18) 0.61 −0.07 (− 0.30, 0.16) 0.54
 Other 0.39 (−0.17, 0.96) 0.17 0.34 (−0.2, 0.88) 0.22 0.26 (− 0.29, 0.81) 0.36 0.25 (− 0.30, 0.79) 0.37
Educational level
 Some HS 0.16 (− 0.31, 0.62) 0.51 0.03 (−0.42, 0.48) 0.91 0.05 (−0.41, 0.51) 0.83 0.05 (− 0.40, 0.50) 0.84
 HS grad −0.05 (− 0.32, 0.22) 0.73 − 0.01 (− 0.27, 0.25) 0.96 −0.01 (− 0.28, 0.25) 0.93 − 0.01 (− 0.26, 0.25) 0.97
 Some college REF   REF   REF   REF  
 College grad 0.14 (− 0.14, 0.42) 0.34 0.10 (− 0.17, 0.37) 0.45 0.09 (−0.18, 0.37) 0.49 0.13 (−0.14, 0.4) 0.34
 Grad −0.02 (− 0.35, 0.31) 0.90 − 0.05 (− 0.36, 0.27) 0.77 − 0.06 (− 0.38, 0.26) 0.71 − 0.03 (− 0.34, 0.29) 0.87
Years with diabetes 0.04*** (0.02, 0.05) < 0.001 0.04*** (0.02, 0.05) < 0.001 0.04*** (0.02, 0.05) < 0.001
Diabetes distress 0.02*** (0.01, 0.03) < 0.001 0.02*** (0.01, 0.03) < 0.001 0.02*** (0.01, 0.03) < 0.001
Diabetes empowerment 0.24* (0.03, 0.45) 0.03 0.25* (0.04, 0.46) 0.02 0.24* (0.03, 0.45) 0.03
Self-reported use of acute or emergency health care services − 0.01 (− 0.06, 0.03) 0.61 − 0.01 (− 0.06, 0.04) 0.65 − 0.01 (− 0.06, 0.03) 0.60
Self-care − 0.10* (− 0.18, − 0.02) 0.02 −0.10* (− 0.18, − 0.02) 0.02 −0.10* (− 0.18, − 0.02) 0.01
Comorbidities − 0.07* (− 0.13, − 0.01) 0.03 − 0.06* (− 0.12, 0.00) 0.04 −0.06* (− 0.12, 0.00) 0.04
Neighborhood economic disadvantage
 Low 0.20 (− 0.14, 0.54) 0.25
 Medium REF  
 High 0.11 (− 0.21, 0.42) 0.51
Neighborhood residential instability
 Low 0.01 (− 0.31, 0.33) 0.95
 Medium REF  
 High 0.18 (− 0.10, 0.46) 0.21
Neighborhood ethnic heterogeneity
 Low − 0.03 (− 0.3, 0.25) 0.84
 Medium REF  
 High 0.01 (− 0.26, 0.28) 0.94
NSD (composite measure)
 Low 0.09 (− 0.18, 0.36) 0.52
 Medium REF  
 High 0.39* (0.08, 0.69) 0.01
  1. Model 1 - Individual demographic variables. Model 2 - Individual demographic, psychosocial, and clinical variables. Model 3 - Individual demographic, psychosocial, and clinical variables and separate NSD measures. Model 4 - Individual demographic, psychosocial, and clinical variables and composite NSD measure
  2. NSD refers to neighborhood social disorganization
  3. * p < 0.05
  4. *** p < 0.001
  5. aIn all models, variables were grand mean centered to increase interpretability