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Fig. 4 | Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology

Fig. 4

From: Spectrum of immune checkpoint inhibitors-induced endocrinopathies in cancer patients: a scoping review of case reports

Fig. 4

Mechanisms of Action of Anti-PD(L)1 and CTLA-4 Drugs. 1a Normal activation state of T cells after interaction with Antigen presenting cell (APC). TCR = T-Cell receptor. 1b Inhibition of T cell activation due to CTLA-4 out-competing CD28 for interaction with CD 80/86. 1c Anti-CTLA-4 drug inhibits CTLA-4 thus CD28 is able to interact with CD80/86 and activate T cell. 2a PD-L1 on tumor cell prevents T cell activation. 2b PD-L1 is blocked by anti-PD(L)1 drugs, T cell activation against tumor is possible

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