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Table 1 Increased risk of malignancy in thyroid nodule on history and physical exam [1, 3, 13]

From: Thyroid nodule update on diagnosis and management

- History of childhood head/neck irradiation [113]
- Total body irradiation for bone marrow transplantation [114]
- Exposure to ionizing radiation from fallout in childhood or adolescence [115, 116]
- Family history of PTC, MTC, or thyroid cancer syndrome (e.g., Cowden’s syndrome, familial polyposis, Carney complex, multiple endocrine neoplasia [MEN] 2, Werner syndrome) [117]
- Enlarging nodule/rapid nodule growth
- Cervical lymphadenopathy
- Fixed nodule to surrounding tissue
- Vocal cord paralysis/hoarseness