This study provides information on the influence of six sauces on the metabolic effects of the most widely consumed staple food in Cameroon, foofoo corn, through the determination of the glycemic index of the meal combinations, for the glycemic effects, and the determination of triglycerides for metabolic effects, in healthy subjects.
The sauces used in descending order were: okra sauce (20 %), ndolè (20 %), cabbage (14.7 %), nkui (12 %), pistachio sauce (11.3 %) and yellow sauce (7.3 %). The glycemic indexes ranged from 5.27 % [diet F (foofoo corn + nkui)] to 22.59 % (% [diet A (foofoo corn + gombo) and C (foofoo corn + ndolè)] with a statistically significant difference between all meals, from T30 to T120 (p < 0.01). In contrast, for the determination of the effects of the diets on triglycerides, the difference was at T180 (p = 0.03), showing that triglyceride levels were not altered acutely. The highest values were generally found at T15. These results could be explained by the presence of chylomicrons normally high in the early postprandial period. The significant lower levels of serum triglycerides found at T180 (latest postprandial period) is probably due to the breakdown of triglycerides by lipoprotein lipase which leads to reduction in their serum levels.
There are limitations when the coefficient of variation of the glucometer used is not validated. But in our study, we used a glucometer that has a very low coefficient of variation [7, 8]. Moreover, the glycemic index can be determined relative to white bread taken as the reference food, but also with glucose, as is the case in this study.
The sample size may seem small, but it is comparable to the recommendations of WHO and FAO, 1998, and other similar studies, like that of Brakohiapa and coworkers, who studied with ten healthy young adult men, the glycemic response of five commonly consumed foods in Ghana  or Mbanya et al. who determined the metabolic and hormonal effects of five most commonly consumed foods in Cameroon  in ten healthy young adults. However, studies with larger sample size are needed to draw definitive inferences.
The subjects included in this study had no relevant medical history and physical examination was unremarkable. Additionnally, they had no hyperglycemia in the second hour post load, proving their healthy state. The same criteria of selection of healthy subjects were used by Mbanya et al., Brand-Miller at al. and Jenkins et al. [1, 5, 11] .
Possible changes that could have affected our results include variations induced, either by the way of food preparation, which differs between households and restaurants, either by the nature or the different degrees of maturity of the needed ingredients for the preparation of the meal, since it is finally the combined effect of all components that influence the value of the glycemic index of a food . In a bid to limit such bias in our study, we used a standardized procedure for the cooking of all these meals. The recipes were taken from a recipes book adopted in the country, entitled “Le Cameroun se met à table”.
In other countries, such as in Mexico, according to a study of Frati-Munari et al., the glycemic index of foods tested, ranged from 10 % ± 17 % for the cactus, to 54 % ± 15 % for brown beans, after a repeated test 14 to 18 times for the same food . In India, Urooj et al. determined the glycemic index of foods made up of six cereals commonly eaten and the values ranged from 44 to 69 % in healthy subjects . With values ranging from 5.27 to 22.59 %, the meals tested in our study are likely to have lower glycemic indices than those previously tested as seen in a study by Mbanya et al. in Cameroon, in which the results of the five foods tested showed the lowest glycemic index for foofoo corn + ndolè (34.1 %) . In this study, the latter has its glycemic index lowered up to 20.18 %. This is probably due to the addition of meat while cooking and to the presence of fat. Indeed, glucose responses of a food eaten alone or in combination with other foods differ. Adding fat or protein to a carbohydrate meal also enhances insulin secretion even though the plasma glucose response actually decreases [15–18]. Moreover, all three primary macronutrients (carbohydrate, fat and protein) stimulate the release of several gut peptides, but to different degrees, and influence glucose effect. Protein and fat are particularly efficacious in stimulating gut peptide release despite a small direct glucose effect [15–18]. Another explanation could be the difference in the mode of preparation of these meals , with variation in the respective recipes. The nkui is a traditional sauce prepared with many ingredients, roots and barks. Its glycemic index, determined at 5.27 % ranks it among the foods with extremely low glycemic index . During its preparation, no considerable amount of protein was added that would justify such a result. Therefore, it may have an ingredient, or the combination of several ingredients, or an intrinsic glucoregulatory effect of the plant itself, which may be responsible for the hypoglycemic effect. Another explanation is its composition - rich in fiber and minerals, with little or no fat and carbohydrates, probably accounting for blood glucose reduction, and therefore, the glycemic index. Finally, glycemic index is dependent on the history of the processing, storing, ripening, cutting, and cooking of the food .
There is great controversy about the utility of using glycemic index in the management diabetes and certainly obesity. Although glycemic index presents some drawbacks, it may be useful in dietary prescription  as some studies have shown the efficiency of the consumption of low glycemic index meals in the management of diabetes, obesity and related diseases [11, 22, 23]. Indeed, there is evidence that low glycemic index diets are effective in improving glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity as well as various markers of cardiovascular risk in people with diabetes and obesity and can be considered in the overall strategy of diabetes management [24–27]. The results of this study only lengthen the list of foods that could be potentially recommended for Cameroonian patients with metabolic disorders, to vary their diet and avoid stress related to culinary cultural differences. Further studies are needed to confirm the potential benefit of these low glycemic index diets for dietary interventions.